Sunday, March 16, 2008

Tempers Flare At the 74th Art Stampede

(Culled from ARTSVILLE (16/3/08) by Toyin Akinosho)

JOKE Silva was upset. Mahmoud Balogun bristled and Umar Farouk Jibril was visibly rattled. Everyone was talking at the same time, at a point in the proceedings of the 74th Art Stampede (Packaging The African Cinema For A Global Audience) in Abuja last week. It seemed that the stakeholders had all come with set interpretations of how far Nollywood had come, why it works and why it doesn't, but the opinions were so tight that crossovers were difficult. The hint that the atmosphere was going to be charged came after the lead speaker, Ben Tomoloju, had delivered an hour long cerebral lecture on the road that Filmmaking had taken on the continent, citing references from Frantz Fanon to the Meiji Restoration. When the moderator, Ayo Arigbabu announced that members of the panel, comprising Balogun (a filmmaker), Sylvester Ogbechie (art historian), Francis Onwochei (Fimmaker) and Francis Duru(Actor/director), would respond to the paper, a murmur of protest went up from the audience and a number of hands were raised, including Jimi Johnson's, suggesting that the field should be open for questions. It was thus natural that words started flying all over the place the moment the panelists finished their comments. Clear takeaways from the discourse include that the Nigerian moving pictures industry may have become a phenomenon of sorts, but it requires some structure to take advantage of its potentials, in terms of aesthetics, global appeal, market access, distribution etc. But there are significant internal hurdles in Nigeria to clear. The Comittee For Relevant Art CORA, is finalising a communique form the proceedings, that will soon be published.,


Packaging African Movies For A Global Audience
THIS paper aims at examining contending issues in the motion picture industry. In doing so, it approaches the subject, motion-picture, from the point of view of a realist. Against the counterpane of history and all the standards that have emerged worldwide, it argues for the legitimacy of the African initiative. With a few criticisms of the shortfalls in the production standards of African movies highlighted, it goes ahead to philosophically position African motion pictures as part and parcel of a universal development which the rest of the world should embrace.

Introduction: The Historical Paradox
THE origin of the science of motion pictures is traced back to 1824. From that year, through the rest of the 19th century, series of experiments were carried out by notable western inventors like Eadweard Muybridge, Thomas A. Edison, W. Friese-Green, the Lumiere Brothers and George Eastman who produced the first celluloid film. However, it was the Lumiere Brothers who did the first public-showing of motion-picture in a cinema-theatre in Paris in 1895.
Tracing the history of the motion-picture to the beginning of the cinema in 1895 is significant in evaluation the place and poise of Africa in the movie-world. It helps in determining how far the continent has come in the use of the powerful medium, its profile among contending forces in inter-cultural relations, the challenges faced by African motion picture practitioners past and present as well as the prospects ahead of them in the global setting.
Naturally, the history of the movies sings a different tune from culture to culture. In Africa, it is not different. Using Nigeria as a closest example, the first public showing of the motion picture took place in 1903, eight years after the western world. In fact, the United States of America woke up to the public screening of films just about the same time as in Africa. The difference, according to history, is that commercial screening started in 1905, well ahead of the African continent.
Against this backdrop, it would have been assumed that, in over a century of contact and connection with the movie enterprise, Africa ought to have stood tall in its mobilization and utilization of the medium in the overall interest of the Africa people. But here lies a serious contradiction.
In its history of 100 years, American motion-picture industry accounts for about half of the world’s box-office releases, grossing an annual revenue of over $4.5 billion at the turn of the last century. Nigerian movies, on the other hand, are still battling for global recognition, surviving on paltry budget and cost-cutting improvisation. This comparison is not meant to cast the Nigerian motion-picture industry in a bad light, but to simply show how disadvantaged it has been in the global scheme of things.
Motion picture in Africa did not begin as cultural property of Africans as it did in the Western world. Its utility-value was, therefore, not salutary to the African intelligentsia who identified in the development an attempt by the colonialists to undermine the dignity and integrity of Africans. While the motion-picture as art and science evolved out of the organic creative and inventive essence of western cultures and was utilized for the promotion of their respective national interests, the reality of its advert in Africa is antithetical.
The motion-picture served the purpose of entrenching the control of the colonialists over the colonized peoples of Africa, manipulating them mentally, subjugating them politically, exploiting them economically and denigrating their cultures.
In this connection, an analysis of the problems besetting the motion-picture enterprise in Africa and the proffering of possible solutions must take into account this contradiction. Certainly, modern history has not been fair to Africans who were once referred to by Professor Ali Mazrui as “the most victimised race” in the world.
For the fact that most of this history was documented by the white overlords, it could not have fared better. Nevertheless, this paradoxical chapter of the African story should not be dumped in the backrooms as sheer chronological happenstance. It is part of our reality, even in the travails of the motion-picture in Africa. It must be held under the powerful lens of African movie-makers as an object for historical and cultural reconstruction in consonance with the political, ideological advocacy of Walter Rodney in his famous book How Europe Under-developed Africa and, of course, the literary model of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart against Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.
Realistically, history once made can never be unmade. Its consequences can only be accepted as factors challenging the inheritors of its legacy, whether fair or foul.
The legacy of motion-picture, as inherited from the west by Africans, should serve the latter as a catalyst for self-reinvigoration and, ultimately, self-vindication.
African scholars and producers like Nigeria’s Wole Soyinka and Senegal’s Sembene Ousmane, among others, have had the cause to initiate a process of reconstruction in which African film-making reacts against “the western stereotype of the black man and his world” towards an objective which Hyginus Ekwuazi aptly describes as a restitution of the distorted culture” of Africa.
Expressly, the voice of the African movie-maker is calling the rest of the world to meet Africa on its own terms. Its persona is not playing the victim, but taking a principled stand as a thoroughbred in the crafting and interpretation of the complexities of a new, dynamic world order.
Concerning the African film, Ekwuazi states as follows: “in this functionalist view, culture becomes not just what it is at any time, but also its elasticity, its growth potentials. Besides, the dynamics of cultural elasticity makes culture the dialectics of growth by providing the thesis and antithesis out of which is born a synthesis; a richer culture, reaching out towards cultural convergence; a homogenisation which becomes more of a reality in each generation.
The African motion-picture is currently berthed upon the shoreline of a synthesis in the dialectical relationship between the continent and the rest of the world. It casts off the beggarly torso of docile end-user of foreign initiative and positions itself on the path of self-actualization. Such attempts at self-actualisation may not be palatable to the metropolitan mercantilists and their predatory collaborators in Bombay and Hong-Kong. But a fact which cannot be wished away and one with which African movie-makers can arm themselves is that the African motion-picture is a cultural-nationalistic insignia. It is part of our collective struggle against any form of domination. It is part of our struggle against the North-south Information Dichotomy. Though our culture relates to others on the basis of mutual respect and universal solidarity, the movie remains a part of the struggle for economic and political emancipation, a struggle for self-determination.
This, in one’s opinion, is the principle upon which the pedagogy of African movies for the global audience should be anchored. It provides the ideological super-structure upon which the paradoxical image of African motion picture is anatomised and refocused. And it does not fail to acknowledge the need to uphold universal standards which determination should not be the exclusive preserve of the west.

African Movies and the Credibility Hurdle
LET it be made clear that the end-in-view of this paper is to create a healthy environment for mutually beneficial cultural dialogue and partnership between Africa and the rest of the world, based essentially on equity and fair-play. It is not meant to obliterate the shortcomings of movies produced in Africa which have been flayed by critics locally and international.
In fact, packaging African movies for the global audience cannot be discussed without taking into consideration issues bordering on competence and accomplishment and, by extension, the credibility of the practice on the continent. In the past three decades or so, critical salvos have been fired at African movies outputs, most of them coming in this era of home-video releases.
Motion-picture industry in Africa is criticised for the paucity of trained professionals in its stables. Screenplays, in a number of cases, are hackneyed, pedestrian, banal or morally bankrupt. The sub-sector is vulnerable to the activities of pirates and all manners of criminal abuse. Enforcement of the copyright law is in a sorry state. The movie-industry is economically marginalised and this is even worsened by the lack of political will among members of the political class to adequately empower the sector.
In the sense that they are aimed at improves professionalism, enhancing the quality of production, its moral responsibility and economic security, these criticisms are genuine. Certainly, they do not apply to all the practitioners. A number of African movie-makers are distinguished professionals with world-class status in their own rights. But they, too, have to temporarily put aside the aura of individual accomplishment and accept these criticisms as a pointer to the challenges that African motion-picture practitioners have to work together to surmount in the process of a global outreach.
Some of the criticisms are valid. Others raise posers for further rumination. For instance, the two issues on non-release of movies in the cinema-theatre and that on the recourse to the video format serve closer scrutiny.
Releasing movies directly to the public by way of home-video is making its own point in a free-market environment. Bu there can be no adequate protection in home-videos the way a theatre-based network would secure the canned fortune of the movie-maker.
Concerning the preponderance of video over celluloid, its logic ties in directly to the principle of self-actualization as earlier enunciated. What African practitioners are doing with the video is determined by the peculiarities of their situation for which they should have no apologies.
The economic arrangement between the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and some African government which led to austere economic measures like the Structural Adjustment Policy (SAP) was a catalyst for new thinking in the movie world. In Nigeria, which serves as a prime example, SAP was very unpopular and the people had to embark on whole days of anti-SAP riot to express their disapproval of the obnoxious economic measure. As a fall-out of the adoption of SAP, the naira fell against major currencies of the world. Foreign exchange procurement was as difficult as a camel passing through the needle’s eye. The spending power of the average Nigerian was drastically reduced. Several companies folded up leading to capital flight, huge job-losses, near-extermination for the middle-class and brain-drain.
The impact of SAP on the movie industry was stultifying because practitioners, as a matter of necessity, had to process their films abroad. With low spending-power and scare foreign exchange, the survival instinct of Nigerian filmmakers led them to start improvising with the video and making the best of a bad situation. Considering the fact that, like culture, creativity is dynamic, it would be out rightly preposterous to fault the step taken by Nigerian movie-makers in this direction.
Looking around Africa, for instance, in a country like Ghana, foreign-induced economic downturn was so ravaging that it swept some of their best performing artistes like Evans Hunter, Dela Williams and Liz Hammond out as economic exiles seeking their fortunes here in Nigeria.
It was largely a continental bog, and certainly a universal burden caused by the prescriptions of the world’s economic therapists with dire consequences on film productions in Africa.
To make recourse to video should therefore be viewed with sagacity by the cosmopolitan critics as a commercial novelty and nothing less. To state otherwise would seem tendentious.
The truth, as pointed out by African film-scholars, is that modern technology, in accord with the resilience, dynamism and creativity of motion-picture practitioners in Africa, is also narrowing the borderline of the cinematic art generated by the celluloid and video. What is left is to make the best of whatever medium that is chosen.
On this note, the credibility hurdle is scaled, with the understanding that current development in the African motion-picture industry which deviates from the application of established motion-picture technology is a creative response to a problematic universal phenomenon.
Logically, the solution to such a problem is also of universal significance. As a component of the mosaic of universal aesthetic responses, it has a right to the attention of the rest of the world. What is desired now is to evolve strategies and map out actions for a profitable outreach of African movies across the globe.

Consolidating the homefront
INTERESTINGLY, the charity of global outreach begins at home. The way to earn the respect of outsiders is for one to put this own his own house in order. There is the need to firm up the home-front in terms of building a culture of excellence in all departments of the industry, through the standardisation of productions, efficacious distribution network and compliance with relevant laws.
In this respect, also, the local populace, when effectively sensitized and mobilized, are a formidable asset in enhancing the fortunes of the industry. They constitute not only the major consumers of the products, but also help in entrenching a movie culture which translates into a living heritage commanding collective loyalty and pride.
In Nigeria, for instance, such a culture is evolving. At the national level and the level of the African Union, governments should invest in this development to take the industry to greater heights because it has the advantage of mitigating some of the problems of individual nations. Apart from creating employment, the motion-picture is a tool for mass-mobilisation.
Promotional and marketing events such as FESPACO in Burkina Faso, Le Benin Festival International du Film in Benin Republic, Sithengi in South Africa, and the troika of BOB-TV, Zuma Festival and AMAA right here in Nigeria, apart from their numerous roles in the industry, serve to project proudly the image of respective African countries. They also promote tourism while consolidating the cultural calendar of individual nations. For these and other reasons, the support of both the public and private sectors of the economy for these major events is highly desirable.
One other factor to examine which may constitute a spoiler to the noble efforts of stakeholders, patrons, governmental and non-governmental agencies, is an unregulated or at the best over-liberalised distribution network. From personal interactions and experience at the local level, one is convinced that this area is not well supervised and monitored.
Lack of accountability and respect for the rights of creators is quite rampant in the distribution sub-sector. Its general state of indiscipline constitutes a drain on the fortunes of movie-makers and tends to open the entire industry to unbridled roguery by local and international syndicate.
In this connection, one are which serves just as an example is video clubbing. Video Club owners now have an association. On the basis of fundamental human rights, it is their inalienable right to do so.
On the positive side, they account for bulk purchases of movie releases and are, therefore, strategically important in the marketing process. The problem, however, is that the video club association has been turned to a cabal of buccaneers who levy and terrorize their members and make huge sums of money that do not, at the end of the day, translate into fortune for the original creators of the movies.
I think video-club owners association now is nothing short of a bunch of motor-park-tout look-alike exploiting the sweat of movie-makers for personal gain. This is unacceptable. Video-clubbing should be more intensely regulated. Every single club has a right to be or not be a member of the association.
But every single club should register with the Nigerian Copyright (Intellectual Property) Commission even if it is situated in the remotest part of the country. Club owners should pay an annual registration fee or levy, an agreed fraction of which should go to guilds recognized in the Nigerian Film Policy or to the Motion Pictures Practitioners Council of Nigeria (MOPPICON).
A directory of video clubs in Nigeria should be published and revised annually. Any club that is not listed will be deemed illegal. The clubs should also be subjected to periodic inspection to ensure strict compliance with the copyright law.
We can even go a step further. Every video-club operator should keep a register of movies in his/her stock with relevant information on sources and proof of genuine transaction. Ile la ti nko eso rode.
This is a Yoruba proverb which translates as in “Charity begins at home.” To consolidate the home-front in movie marketing and distribution, it cannot be business as usual. Nigerian marketers and their numerous outlets and retailers must respect and even protect the intellectual property rights of movie-makers.
This way, they will not play into the hands of international syndicates and the reciprocity clause in the copyright protocols will be easier to implement.

Standardisation of Movie-outputs
THIS is an imperative relevant to both the local and foreign markets. With regards to the former, members of the African community are now having easy access to the outside world via satellite technology. They are getting increasingly sophisticated and discriminating in their taste for good movies. Thus, it is incumbent on stakeholders to insist on quality in all areas of production – screenwriting, directing, cinematography, acting, designs, among others.
To win the foreign audience who, naturally, are weaned on numerous classics, the real is to present them with credible alternatives from Africa, not only in terms of cinematic craftsmanship, but also the pulsating grip of fascinating and inspiring African stories.
This, I dare day, is an area where a producer such as Tunde Kelani stands distinguished. His partnership with a highly resourceful creative writer such as Professor Akinwunmi Ishola in movies like O le ku and Saworo Ide combines the eloquence of the moving-image with the profundity of well-told African stories.
More of these are recommended. There is the need to search through our epic models, the trails of heroes and heroines, the communal essence of African life and epochal subjects in the contemporary social circumstance of Africans for rich African stories with universal appeal.
The stories of Sundiata, Chaka the Zulu, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, Haile Sellasie, Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela, Patrice Lumumba and other freedom fighters, including those in Nigeria, will make a compelling viewing outside the shores of Africa.
Creativity is dynamic. Regardless of what works may have been done on some of these historical personages, as in Eddie Ugbomah’s Death of a Black President, fresh ideas and interpretations can sublimate into new and exciting classics.
Of equal importance in the sourcing of materials for the African movie-story is our creative literature. An outstanding work like Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart deserves to go beyond the adaptation by the Nigerian Television Authority. Kongi’s Harvest by Wole Soyinka has been adapted and produced on celluloid, but, from all indications and with the objections raised by the playwright himself against the director’s intervention, there is certainly another room for a movie excursion into the fictional world of an African dictator. Ngugi wa Thiongo’s The Trial Dedan Kimathi is a gripping story on popular struggles. And, on the comic side, Efua Sutherland’s The Marriage of Anansewa and Femi Osofisan’s Who is Afraid of Tai Solarin are succulent offerings waiting to be explored. In his introduction to an anthology of Best American Screenplays (Volume 2), Sam Thomas presents aptly the interface between literature and motion-picture. On an optimistic note concerning the literacry quality of movie-scripts, he writes: “We look forward to a time in the very near future when screenplays will become common reading, not only in university and high school film course, but in English departments as well, alongside the novel, the stage play and poetry."
The statement is unambiguous. Literature can be very useful to screenwriting. What is important in the case of the African movie is to utilise materials sourced from Africa to make the difference.
One may only add that producers should find a way for mediation between the literary and the cinematic. No doubt, the African motion-picture, in communicating with the rest of the world, will respect the prime position of the moving-image. It should, however, see the literary as an added resource, especially for its condensed sublimity in complementary relationship with the moving-image. Taken straight from Things Fall Apart one could feel the emotional impact visually and verbally when Okonkwo was forewarned concerning Ikemefuna: That child calls you father. Do no have a hand in his death.”
These are the kind of words from the African repertoire that can give the screen a poetic resonance.

Foreign Connections:
ONE of the strategies in audience cultivation is to “use what you have to get what you want.” Another is, “you rub my back, I rub your back.” One has preferred these descriptive simplifications in the popular lingo to illustrate possible outreach strategies in packaging African movies for the global audience because they drive the point home directly.
One of the reasons behind the influx of western movies into Africa was that virtually all the nations in Africa, with the exception of Ethiopia, were colonised. As such, citizens of the new African nations were like anxious brides waiting to be groomed. The metropolis has all things going for them because their unctions were hard to resist. In the case of contemporary Africa, there are no conquered territories to goad.
But one vehicle that we have in projecting our movies to the outside world is the formidable presence of Africans in the diaspora. Already, this factor is being exploited by individual film-marketers.
It, however, needs to be comprehensive. Stronger arguments deriving, for instance, from the leadership position of Nigeria in the black and African world as well as the restoration of cultural links can be put to use in the attempt to cultivate a devoted clientele for African movies in the African Diaspora. For example, one can imagine the kind of reception an epic movie on Emperor Haile Sellasie will have in the Rastafarianism infested countries of the Caribbean. Definitely, as I have had the opportunity to note in a trip to the Caribbean some years ago, our African brothers and sisters whose ancestry were long severed from the mother continent are yearning for this arm of re-union.
Beyond the African Diaspora, other countries in Europe, America, Asia and Oceania have signed one form of cultural agreement or the other with African nations which entail cultural exchange programmes and trade. Recently, during the visit on Nigeria’s President, Alhaji Umar Musa Yar’Adua to China, a Protocol on Cultural Exchange and Education was signed between the two countries.
Already, the Chinese are rushing into Africa, utilising various agreements to project and market their products and skills. It is, therefore, incumbent on movie-makers of Africa just as it is on every professional to utilise these agreements and protocols in marketing their products.
In these documents are enshrined an order of reciprocity — you rub my back, I rub your back. A partner in the bargain who consigns his own prerogative to dormancy can only have himself to blame.
If the Chinese come to Africa flapping their own copy of the protocol, Africans should go to China to flap their own copies. If the British Council moves around Nigeria flaunting the Commonwealth instrument, Nigerians should, without apologies, go to Great Britain flaunting our own commonwealth instrument as it pertains, especially, to cultural relations, trade and education.
If the United States beams its way into our living-rooms via satellite television, and on the basis of globalization, the AIT satellite television should beam into the heart of America branding the globalisation instruments.
This brings us to the “Heart of Africa Project”. Former Minister of Information and National Orientation, Frank Nweke Jnr. Was quite enthusiastic about this project. One is not so sure what the situation is at the moment, whether the momentum is sustained or whether it has dropped.
Whatever, one believe that the Federal Government of Nigeria, for the sake of Nigeria and Africa at large, should sustain the “Heart of Africa Project” as a cardinal initiative in spirit, letters and action.
The interest showed in Nollywood should also be sustained because this will ensure the packaging, promotion and propagation of Nigerian movies abroad, open the door for other African countries, with all the attendant benefits in the promotion of the country’s national interest.

Global Networking and the African Motion-Picture Consortium
GRANTED, African motion-pictures are making an appreciable impact around the world. There is, however, a great room for improvement. More movies have to be produced on an ambitious scale, which should go beyond whatever has been done in The Battle of Musanga, Sango, Sitanda or Amazing Grace. And all the inputs, including distribution and exhibition locally and internationally, have to be correspondingly ambitious.
One is looking at African movies getting the big headlines in the international media, making waves in the big cinema-theatres of the international capitals and attracting huge revenue for their robust artistry technical excellence.
Without doubt, producing such movies of epical dimension entails a lot of capital. Furthermore, it would require deliberate policies and actions on global networking for African motion-picture. It certainly is an onerous task.
But it can be done. In the free-market economy such as is currently being operated in this era of globalization, participation in such global networking can involve individuals, companies or whole consortia.
In view of the liquidity problems in sole-proprietorship and private companies, it seems that a consortium of African motion-picture practitioners would easily carry out this objective.
Already rudiments of this idea exist at certain levels of the production of motion-pictures in Nigeria. One is aware that indigenous practitioners in Yoruba engage in a kind of labour-based co-operative which reduces the financial burden of individual producers. Recently, a group of producers got together and established a marketing outlet in Lagos. Also it is on record that some Nigerian marketers – though in controversial circumstance – stood down the production of movies at a stage when there was a glut in the market. All these are business initiative, which indicate that practitioners can mass together all resources available and embark on gigantic projects for large scale export in their own best interest.
Such ambitions production designed only for the making of quintessential classics with the best possible technical back-up can take off at national or continental level. Guilds of screenwriters, cinematographers, producers, directors, actors, editors, designers and other experts in the field have a vital role to play in this respect.
The Motion Picture Practitioners Council of Nigeria (MOPPICON) or a similar umbrella body in any African country should lend policy weight to it.
In the same vein, governmental agencies, on line of duty and on account of practically implementing existing bilateral and multilateral protocols and agreements are germane to this cause.
By the consortium, one is speaking of total engagement in which production capital is multifariously subsidized in cash or kind from production stages to the establishment of distribution networks and cinema across the globe for African movies.
On the grounds of globalization, a horde of businessmen and women from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and the Middle East are finding their ways to Africa.
An order of reciprocity as a matter of right has to be brought to bear on contemporary global economic trends so that Africans will also penetrate other limes with equal vigour with their skills and businesses and sell their products under a free-market, non—protectionist arrangement.
Let it be stated unequivocally, therefore, that African movies are a prime-product for export; that Africa boast of a quantum of high-skill in the film industry that can impact positively on the global consciousness.
The flag of this position will be carried by the consortium using all possible international treaties as a launch-pad, re-tying the bonds of kinship in the African Diaspora and winning the solidarity of professional counterparts abroad for safe-landing.
With a vigorous and assiduous pursuit of this objective, alongside other suggestions earlier made, one is certain that a route will be carved for the smooth flow and acceptability of quality movies from Africa to the rest of the world, with the attendant economic and other benefits guaranteed.

In this exercise, one has attempted a general overview of the movie industry in Africa. One would only like to conclude by extracting in a distilled form some of the recommendations for further discussions.
• The pedagogy of the motion-picture industry in Africa should be based on the universal significance of the merits of innovations that African movie-makers have brought into the practice which, in a process of confidence-building, should recommend their works for global recognition and acceptance.
• Standardisation in all departments of the motion-picture industry in Africa should be a sine qua non.
• Internal cohesion, full capacity-utilization and a culture of excellence should be ensured locally to earn the respect of the global community.
• The public and private sectors of the economy should take advantage of numerous benefits of the motion-picture industry by giving it maximum support and empowering its practitioners.
• The general indiscipline and lack of respect for the rights of intellectual property owners in the marketing and distribution of African movies should be checked to avoid pernicious collusion with international syndicates.
• African movie-makers should do more to exploit the African story in their screenplays to make the difference.
• Restoration of cultural links with the African Diaspora should form part of the strategies for cultivating a massive global audience.
• Africa movie-makers, in collaboration with relevant governmental agencies, should be pro-active in putting to use all bilateral and multilateral instruments that can open doors for African movies worldwide.
• The Nigerian government should sustain and pursue more vigorously the “Heart of Africa Project,” especially for the vital role the motion-picture industry can play in the realization of its noble objectives.
• Practitioners at national and continental levels should embark on global networking on an ambitious, massive scale through a consortium to establish viable and thriving outposts for African movies across the globe.

-Being a Paper Presented by Ben Tomoloju, Executive Director, BTC – Media and Creative Consultants, Lagos for BOB – TV 2008, Abuja, Nigeria seminar on Tuesday, March 11, 2008, Co-ordinated by the COMMITTEE FOR RELEVANT ARTS (CORA).

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